Journals

Replication and contradiction of highly cited research papers in psychiatry: 10-year follow-up.

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Replication and contradiction of highly cited research papers in psychiatry: 10-year follow-up.

Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Jul 9;

Authors: Tajika A, Ogawa Y, Takeshima N, Hayasaka Y, Furukawa TA

Abstract

BackgroundContradictions and initial overestimates are not unusual among highly cited studies. However, this issue has not been researched in psychiatry.AimsTo assess how highly cited studies in psychiatry are replicated by subsequent studies.MethodWe selected highly cited studies claiming effective psychiatric treatments in the years 2000 through 2002. For each of these studies we searched for subsequent studies with a better-controlled design, or with a similar design but a larger sample.ResultsAmong 83 articles recommending effective interventions, 40 had not been subject to any attempt at replication, 16 were contradicted, 11 were found to have substantially smaller effects and only 16 were replicated. The standardised mean differences of the initial studies were overestimated by 132%. Studies with a total sample size of 100 or more tended to produce replicable results.ConclusionsCaution is needed when a study with a small sample size reports a large effect.

PMID: 26159600 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Excess cause-specific mortality in in-patient-treated individuals with personality disorder: 25-year nationwide population-based study.

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Excess cause-specific mortality in in-patient-treated individuals with personality disorder: 25-year nationwide population-based study.

Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Jul 9;

Authors: Björkenstam E, Björkenstam C, Holm H, Gerdin B, Ekselius L

Abstract

BackgroundAlthough personality disorders are associated with increased overall mortality, less is known about cause of death and personality type.AimsTo determine causes of mortality in ICD personality disorders.MethodBased on data from Swedish nationwide registers, individuals admitted to hospital with a primary diagnosis of personality disorder between 1987 and 2011 were followed with respect to mortality until 31 December 2011. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% confidence intervals and underlying causes of death were calculated.ResultsAll-cause SMRs were increased, overall and in all clusters, for natural as well as unnatural causes of death. The overall SMR was 6.1 in women and 5.0 in men, as high as previously reported for anorexia nervosa, with higher rates in cluster B and mixed/other personality disorders. The SMR for suicide was 34.5 in women and 16.0 in men for cluster B disorders. Somatic and psychiatric comorbidity increased SMRs.ConclusionsThe SMR was substantially increased for all personality disorder clusters. Thus, there was an increased premature mortality risk for all personality disorders, irrespective of category.

PMID: 26159601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Suicide by people in a community justice pathway: population-based nested case-control study.

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Suicide by people in a community justice pathway: population-based nested case-control study.

Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Jul 9;

Authors: King C, Senior J, Webb RT, Millar T, Piper M, Pearsall A, Humber N, Appleby L, Shaw J

Abstract

SummaryThe elevated risk of suicide in prison and after release is a well-recognised and serious problem. Despite this, evidence concerning community-based offenders’ suicide risk is sparse. We conducted a population-based nested case-control study of all people in a community justice pathway in England and Wales. Our data show 13% of general population suicides were in community justice pathways before death. Suicide risks were highest among individuals receiving police cautions, and those having recent, or impending prosecution for sexual offences. Findings have implications for the training and practice of clinicians identifying and assessing suicidality, and offering support to those at elevated risk.

PMID: 26159602 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Antidepressant use in 27 European countries: associations with sociodemographic, cultural and economic factors.

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Antidepressant use in 27 European countries: associations with sociodemographic, cultural and economic factors.

Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Jul 9;

Authors: Lewer D, O’Reilly C, Mojtabai R, Evans-Lacko S

Abstract

BackgroundPrescribing of antidepressants varies widely between European countries despite no evidence of difference in the prevalence of affective disorders.AimsTo investigate associations between the use of antidepressants, country-level spending on healthcare and country-level attitudes towards mental health problems.MethodWe used Eurobarometer 2010, a large general population survey from 27 European countries, to measure antidepressant use and regularity of use. We then analysed the associations with country-level spending on healthcare and country-level attitudes towards mental health problems.ResultsHigher country spending on healthcare was strongly associated with regular use of antidepressants. Beliefs that mentally ill people are ‘dangerous’ were associated with higher use, and beliefs that they ‘never recover’ or ‘have themselves to blame’ were associated with lower and less regular use of antidepressants.ConclusionsContextual factors, such as healthcare spending and public attitudes towards mental illness, may partly explain variations in antidepressant use and regular use of these medications.

PMID: 26159603 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Abnormal brain activation in excoriation (skin-picking) disorder: evidence from an executive planning fMRI study.

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Abnormal brain activation in excoriation (skin-picking) disorder: evidence from an executive planning fMRI study.

Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Jul 9;

Authors: Odlaug BL, Hampshire A, Chamberlain SR, Grant JE

Abstract

BackgroundExcoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) is a relatively common psychiatric condition whose neurobiological basis is unknown.AimsTo probe the function of fronto-striatal circuitry in SPD.MethodEighteen participants with SPD and 15 matched healthy controls undertook an executive planning task (Tower of London) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Activation during planning was compared between groups using region of interest and whole-brain permutation cluster approaches.ResultsThe SPD group exhibited significant functional underactivation in a cluster encompassing bilateral dorsal striatum (maximal in right caudate), bilateral anterior cingulate and right medial frontal regions. These abnormalities were, for the most part, outside the dorsal planning network typically activated by executive planning tasks.ConclusionsAbnormalities of neural regions involved in habit formation, action monitoring and inhibition appear involved in the pathophysiology of SPD. Implications exist for understanding the basis of excessive grooming and the relationship of SPD with putative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.

PMID: 26159604 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cortical folding and the potential for prognostic neuroimaging in schizophrenia.

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Cortical folding and the potential for prognostic neuroimaging in schizophrenia.

Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Jul 23;

Authors: Guo S, Iwabuchi S, Balain V, Feng J, Liddle P, Palaniyappan L

Abstract

SummaryIn 41 patients with schizophrenia, we used neuroanatomical information derived from structural imaging to identify patients with more severe illness, characterised by high symptom burden, low processing speed, high degree of illness persistence and lower social and occupational functional capacity. Cortical folding, but not thickness or volume, showed a high discriminatory ability in correctly identifying patients with more severe illness.

PMID: 26206860 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Frontal slow-wave activity as a predictor of negative symptoms, cognition and functional capacity in schizophrenia.

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Frontal slow-wave activity as a predictor of negative symptoms, cognition and functional capacity in schizophrenia.

Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Jul 23;

Authors: Chen YH, Stone-Howell B, Edgar JC, Huang M, Wootton C, Hunter MA, Lu BY, Sadek JR, Miller GA, Cañive JM

Abstract

BackgroundIncreased temporal and frontal slow-wave delta (1-4 Hz) and theta (4-7 Hz) activities are the most consistent resting-state neural abnormalities reported in schizophrenia. The frontal lobe is associated with negative symptoms and cognitive abilities such as attention, with negative symptoms and impaired attention associated with poor functional capacity.AimsTo establish whether frontal dysfunction, as indexed by slowing, would be associated with functional impairments.MethodEyes-closed magnetoencephalography data were collected in 41 participants with schizophrenia and 37 healthy controls, and frequency-domain source imaging localised delta and theta activity.ResultsElevated delta and theta activity in right frontal and right temporoparietal regions was observed in the schizophrenia v.

CONTROL GROUP: In schizophrenia, right-frontal delta activity was uniquely associated with negative but not positive symptoms. In the full sample, increased right-frontal delta activity predicted poorer attention and functional capacity.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that treatment-associated decreases in slow-wave activity could be accompanied by improved functional outcome and thus better prognosis.

PMID: 26206861 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Sleep problems and self-harm in adolescence.

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Sleep problems and self-harm in adolescence.

Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Jul 23;

Authors: Hysing M, Sivertsen B, Stormark KM, O’Connor RC

Abstract

BackgroundAlthough self-harm and sleep problems are major public health problems in adolescence, detailed epidemiological assessment is essential to understand the nature of this relationship.AimsTo conduct a detailed assessment of the relationship between sleep and self-harm in adolescence.MethodA large population-based study in Norway surveyed 10 220 adolescents aged 16-19 years on mental health, including a comprehensive assessment of sleep and self-harm.ResultsAdolescents with sleep problems were significantly more likely to report self-harm than those without sleep problems. Insomnia, short sleep duration, long sleep onset latency, wake after sleep on set as well as large differences between weekdays versus weekends, yielded higher odds of self-harm consistent with a dose-response relationship. Depressive symptoms accounted for some, but not all, of this association.ConclusionsThe findings highlight a strong relationship between sleep problems and self-harm. Interventions to reduce adolescent self-harm ought to incorporate sleep problems as a treatment target.

PMID: 26206862 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Loci with genome-wide associations with schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population.

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Loci with genome-wide associations with schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population.

Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Jul 23;

Authors: Li Z, Xiang Y, Chen J, Li Q, Shen J, Liu Y, Li W, Xing Q, Wang Q, Wang L, Feng G, He L, Zhao X, Shi Y

Abstract

BackgroundA large schizophrenia genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a subsequent extensive replication study of individuals of European ancestry identified eight new loci with genome-wide significance and suggested that the MIR137-mediated pathway plays a role in the predisposition for schizophrenia.AimsTo validate the above findings in a Han Chinese population.MethodWe analysed the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the newly identified schizophrenia candidate loci and predicted MIR137 target genes based on our published Han Chinese populations (BIOX) GWAS data. We then analysed 18 SNPs from the candidate regions in an independent cohort that consisted of 3585 patients with schizophrenia and 5496 controls of Han Chinese ancestry.ResultsWe replicated the associations of five markers (P<0.05), including three that were located in the predicted MIR137 target genes. Two loci (ITIH3/4: rs2239547, P = 1.17×10(-10) and CALN1: rs2944829, P = 9.97×10(-9)) exhibited genome-wide significance in the Han Chinese population.ConclusionsThe ITIH3/4 locus has been reported to be of genome-wide significance in the European population. The successful replication of this finding in a different ethnic group provides stronger evidence for the association between schizophrenia and ITIH3/4. We detected the first genome-wide significant association of schizophrenia with CALN1, which is a predicted target of MIR137, and thus provide new evidence for the associations between MIR137 targets and schizophrenia.

PMID: 26206863 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Physical exercise for late-life major depression.

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Physical exercise for late-life major depression.

Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Jul 23;

Authors: Belvederi Murri M, Amore M, Menchetti M, Toni G, Neviani F, Cerri M, Rocchi MB, Zocchi D, Bagnoli L, Tam E, Buffa A, Ferrara S, Neri M, Alexopoulos GS, Zanetidou S, Safety and Efficacy of Exercise for Depression in Seniors (SEEDS) Study Group

Abstract

BackgroundInterventions including physical exercise may help improve the outcomes of late-life major depression, but few studies are available.AimsTo investigate whether augmenting sertraline therapy with physical exercise leads to better outcomes of late-life major depression.MethodPrimary care patients (>65 years) with major depression were randomised to 24 weeks of higher-intensity, progressive aerobic exercise plus sertraline (S+PAE), lower-intensity, non-progressive exercise plus sertraline (S+NPE) and sertraline alone. The primary outcome was remission (a score of ≤10 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression).ResultsA total of 121 patients were included. At study end, 45% of participants in the sertraline group, 73% of those in the S+NPE group and 81% of those in the S+PAE group achieved remission (P = 0.001). A shorter time to remission was observed in the S+PAE group than in the sertraline-only group.ConclusionsPhysical exercise may be a safe and effective augmentation to antidepressant therapy in late-life major depression.

PMID: 26206864 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]