In Memoriam: Albert Z. Kapikian, MD, 1930-2014.
J Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 2;
Authors: Morens DM, Fauci AS
PMID: 25737559 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Comments about the presence of Leishmania major in gorillas’ feces.
J Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 3;
Authors: Bastien P, Volf P, Depaquit J, Dondji B, Gallego M, Gangneux JP, Izri A, Marty P, Piarroux R, Pratlong F, Dedet JP
PMID: 25737560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Reply to Bastien et al.
J Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 3;
Authors: Hamad I, Forestier CL, Greub G, Jaton K, Raoult D, Bittar F
PMID: 25737561 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
A Tick Vector Transmission Model of Monocytotropic Ehrlichiosis.
J Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 3;
Authors: Saito TB, Walker DH
BACKGROUND: Ehrlichioses are emerging, tick-borne diseases distributed world-wide. Previously established animal models use needle inoculation as a mode of infection; however, there is limited representation of natural transmission in artificially inoculated models compared with transmission by the tick vector. The objective of this study was to develop a tick vector transmission animal model of ehrlichial infection using a human pathogen, Ehlichia muris-like agent (EMLA).
METHODS: Ixodes scapularis larvae were fed on EMLA-infected mice, and after molting infected nymphs were used to infest naïve animals.
RESULTS: Ehrlichiae were acquired by 90-100% of feeding larvae. The majority of animals fed upon by infected nymphs developed sublethal infection with 27% lethality. Bacteria disseminated to all tissues tested with greatest bacterial loads in lungs, but also spleen, lymph nodes, liver, kidneys, brain and bone marrow. Numerous foci of cellular infiltration, mitoses and hepatocellular death were observed in liver. Mice infected by tick transmission developed higher anti-ehrlichial antibody levels than needle-inoculated animals. Tick feeding site reactions were observed, but there was no observed difference between animals infested with infected or uninfected ticks.
CONCLUSION: For the first time we were able to develop a tick transmission model with an Ehrlichia that is pathogenic for humans.
PMID: 25737562 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The fall of a dogma? Unexpected high T cell memory response to S. aureus in humans.
J Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 3;
Authors: Kolata J, Kühbandner I, Link C, Normann N, Hai Vu C, Steil L, Weidenmaier C, Bröker BM
INTRODUCTION: Though Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen, vaccine trials have failed. In contrast, class-switched antibodies specific to S. aureus are common, implying immune memory formation and suggesting a large pool of S. aureus-reactive helper T cells.
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the cellular arm of human S. aureus-specific immune memory, the T cell response in humans was characterized.
METHODS: The proliferative response of human PBMC to S. aureus antigens and the frequency of S. aureus-specific T cells were quantified by (3)H-thymidine incorporation. The cytokine release was measured by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: S. aureus particles and extra-cellular proteins elicited pronounced proliferation in PBMC of healthy adults. This reflected a memory response with high frequencies of T cells being activated by single S. aureus antigens. The whole S. aureus-specific T cell pool was estimated to comprise 3.6% of T cells with 35-fold differences between individuals (range 0.2-5.7%). When exposed to S. aureus antigens, the T cells released predominantly but not solely Th1/Th17 cytokines.
CONCLUSIONS: The large number of S. aureus antigen-reactive memory T lymphocytes is likely to influence the course of S. aureus infection. To enable rational vaccine design the naturally acquired human T cell memory needs to be explored at high priority.
PMID: 25737563 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Risk of virological failure in HIV-1-infected patients experiencing low-level viraemia under active antiretroviral therapy (ANRS C03 cohort study).
Antivir Ther. 2015 Mar 4;
Authors: Vandenhende MA, Perrier A, Bonnet F, Lazaro E, Cazanave C, Reigadas S, Chêne G, Morlat P, Groupe d’Epidémiologie Clinique du SIDA en Aquitaine
BACKGROUND: We assessed the association of persistent low-level viremia between 50-199 copies/mL (LLV) with the risk of virological failure (VF) among HIV-1 infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (ART).
METHODS: ART-naive and ART-experienced patients followed up in the ANRS-CO3 Aquitaine Cohort were included if they started two Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI) with either one Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI) or one Protease inhibitor boosted with ritonavir (PI/r) between 2000 and 2011 and achieved viral load (VL) < 200 copies/mL 4-8 months after initiating ART. VF was defined as either two consecutive VL≥200 copies/mL or one VL≥200 followed by a modification of ART. LLV was defined as at least two consecutive VL between 50-199 copies/mL for at least one month. We used Cox models to estimate the association of LLV with VF.
RESULTS: Among 2374 patients with a median follow-up of 3 years, 205 (8.6%) experienced LLV. LLV was strongly associated with further VF (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.30, 95% CI 1.65-3.20). LLV was associated with VF in ART-experienced patients (aHR: 3.02, 95% CI 2.10-4.33) but not in ART-naïve patients. Neither type of ART regimen (PI/r- versus NNRTI-based regimen) nor cumulative duration of LLV was associated with VF.
CONCLUSIONS: Persistent LLV between 50-199 copies/mL was associated with VF among ART-experienced patients under ART. LLV between 50-199 copies/mL in ART-experienced patients should lead, after assessing patient’s adherence and checking for drugs interactions, to a closer monitoring and to consider ART optimization.
PMID: 25735799 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Minimally invasive versus open total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: Long-term results from a case-matched study of 633 patients.
Surgery. 2015 Feb 28;
Authors: Cho MS, Kim CW, Baek SJ, Hur H, Min BS, Baik SH, Lee KY, Kim NK
BACKGROUND: This study compared the long-term oncologic outcomes of patients with rectal cancer who underwent either laparoscopic or robotic total mesorectal excision (TME) via minimally invasive surgery (MIS) to those patient who underwent open TME.
METHODS: This study was a retrospective, case-control study; patients in the 2 groups were matched according to age, sex, MIS vs open operation, body mass index, tumor location, pathologic TNM stage (ie, tumor-node-metastasis), neoadjuvant treatment, and adjuvant treatment.
RESULTS: A total of 633 patients (MIS, n = 211; open, n = 422) were assessed. The median follow-up period was 64 (2-124) months. Patient characteristics did not differ between the groups. Overall postoperative complication rates did not differ between the groups (16.0% [MIS]; 17.0% [open]; P = .76). Rates of the involvement of the circumferential resection margin did not differ between the groups (4.0% [MIS]; 5.0% [open]; P = .84). The 5-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, disease-free survival, and local recurrence rates were not different between the MIS and open groups (overall survival = 88.4% vs 85.3%, P = .23; disease-specific survival = 88.8% vs 87.4%, P = .53, disease-free survival = 80.7% vs 78.4%, P = .74; local recurrence = 5.7% vs 5.1%, P = .95). In subgroup analysis, no differences were found in terms of the long-term, oncologic outcomes, oncologic adequacy, and postoperative complications among 3 groups.
CONCLUSION: We found no differences in the oncologic outcomes between MIS and open surgery, suggesting that MIS for rectal cancer is a safe option for rectal cancer that does not increase the risk of serious complications.
PMID: 25737005 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The association of noise and surgical-site infection in day-case hernia repairs.
Surgery. 2015 Feb 28;
Authors: Dholakia S, Jeans JP, Khalid U, Dholakia S, D’Souza C, Nemeth K
INTRODUCTION: Surgical-site infections (SSIs) are associated with an increased duration of hospital stay, poorer quality of life, and an marked increase in cost to the hospital. Lapses in compliance with aseptic principles are a substantial risk factor for SSI, which may be attributable to distractions such as noise during the operation. The aims of this study were to assess whether noise levels in the operating room are associated with the development of SSI and to elucidate the extent to which these levels affect the financial burden of surgery.
METHODS: Prospective data collection from elective, day-case male patients undergoing elective hernia repairs was undertaken. Patients were included if they were fit and at low risk for SSI. Sound levels during procedures was measured via a decibel meter and correlated with the incidence of SSI. Data analysis was performed with IBM SPSS (IBM, Armonk, NY).
RESULTS: Noise levels were substantially greater in patients with SSI from time point of 50 minutes onwards, which correlated to when wound closure was occurring. Additional hospital costs for these patients were £243 per patient based on the National Health Service 2013 reference costing.
CONCLUSION: Decreasing ambient noise levels in the operating room may aid in reducing the incidence of SSIs, particularly during closure, and decrease the associated financial costs of this complication.
PMID: 25737006 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Reducing Ventral Tegmental Dopamine D2 Receptor Expression Selectively Boosts Incentive Motivation.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Mar 4;
Authors: de Jong JW, Roelofs TJ, Mol FM, Hillen AE, Meijboom KE, Luijendijk MC, van der Eerden HA, Garner KM, Vanderschuren LJ, Adan RA
Altered mesolimbic dopamine signaling has been widely implicated in addictive behavior. For the most part, this work has focused on dopamine within the striatum, but there is emerging evidence for a role of the auto-inhibitory, somatodendritic dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in addiction. Thus, decreased midbrain D2R expression has been implicated in addiction in humans. Moreover, knockout of the gene encoding the D2R receptor (Drd2) in dopamine neurons has been shown to enhance the locomotor response to cocaine in mice. Therefore, we here tested the hypothesis that decreasing D2R expression in the VTA of adult rats, using shRNA knockdown, promotes addiction-like behavior in rats responding for cocaine or palatable food. Rats with decreased VTA D2R expression showed markedly increased motivation for both sucrose and cocaine under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement, but the acquisition or maintenance of cocaine self administration were not affected. They also displayed enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor activity, but no change in basal locomotion. This robust increase in incentive motivation was behaviorally specific, since we did not observe any differences in fixed ratio responding, extinction responding, reinstatement or conditioned suppression of cocaine and sucrose seeking. We conclude that VTA D2R knockdown results in increased incentive motivation, but does not directly promote other aspects of addiction-like behavior.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 04 March 2015. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.60.
PMID: 25735756 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Reply to “Sleep in children with atopic Dermatitis”
Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2015 Mar 2;
Authors: Rolinck-Werninghaus C, Trentmann M, Reich A, Lehmann C, Staab D
We read with interest the letter of Kawada concerning the assessment of sleep in children with atopic dermatitis (1) in reply to our manuscript (2) focusing on improved management of childhood atopic dermatitis after individually tailored nurse consultations. Our work focussed on a better implementation of care recommendations within the families. We agree that sleep with respect to symptom control and quality of life of patients with atopic dermatitis and their families is an important topic. However, we disagree to Kawada’s concern, that our measurement was inappropriate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 25735268 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]